Writing and Citation Help

Style Manual

The Purdue OWL (Online Writing Lab) is a resource for any APA formatting questions you may have or style questions. Please use this resource as you write your papers and consider purchasing the APA style guide for your use throughout your college career. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.).

Additionally, the APA Style Blog has several features to help you–whether you are just browsing or looking for an answer to a specific question. For example, you can search the blog, explore posts by category, and view the most recent posts and comments. Use the search box for answers to specific questions like: How do you cite a work where some or all of the authors have the same last name? or How do a cite a YouTube video?


Basics of APA Style

Double-space your paper, including the reference list. Leave margins of at least one inch (1”) at the top, bottom and sides of the paper. Be sure to indent the first line of every paragraph five to seven spaces or ½ inch.

Title Page

The title page should include the running head for publication, title, byline, and institutional affiliation. (APA Manual, p. 23-25)


Body of Paper

Reference Page

Arrange reference list entries in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author. Use only the initial(s) of the author’s name, with a space and a period between the initials (APA Manual, p.181).

If no author is listed, then move the title to the author position, before the date of publication. (APA Manual, p. 183)

If a title has more than eight authors, include the first six author’s names, then insert three ellipses, and add the last author’s name. (APA Manual, p. 184,198).


Glueckrafu, R.L.; Whitton, J., Baxter, J. , Kain, J., Vogelgesang, S., Hudson, M.,…Botros, N. (2009).

For the reference page, capitalize only the first letter of the first word for book or article titles. Capitalize proper nouns as well as the first word following a colon in a subtitle. (APA Manual, p. 101-104)


Lyons, J.D. (2006). Winston Churchill and the rhetorical challenges of democratic statesmanship. Perspectives on

Political Science, 34(1), 4-13. doi: 10.1211/151421528198005

Formatting the Reference Page

Start the reference list on a new page. The Reference page should include the title of the paper and the word References should be in upper and lower case letters, centered on the page.

The first line of the citation should begin at the left margin. If a citation is longer than one line, double space between the lines, with the second line being indented 1/2″ or 5 spaces from the left margin (Hanging indent).


Chicago style which is often referred to as Turabian, began as a citation guide written by Kate Turabian while she served as dissertation secretary at the University of Chicago. Turabian is the author of “A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations,” upon which the current Chicago Style for writing is based. The Chicago Manual of Style is currently in its 17th edition (2017), and it is the preferred style guide in many fields. For the most up to date information, you can also refer to the Chicago Manual of Style Online. The Chicago Manual of Style uses two different documentation systems: Notes & Bibliography and Author-Date. Notes and bibliography is frequently used in history, literature, and the arts. The author-date system is frequently used in the social sciences and sciences.

Notes & Bibliography System

In the notes and bibliography system each source is cited in the text by a superscript (raised) number in the text. The number refers to a citation that is included in a footnote (at the bottom of the page) or an endnote (at the end of the text). The sources used for the paper will also probably be listed in a bibliography.

Author-Date System

In the author-date system each source is cited in the text by the author’s last name and the year of publication (usually in parentheses). The full citation for the source is given in a list of references.

Which System to Use

To determine which system to follow, always check with your professor. However, there are some general rules of thumb.

The notes and bibliography system is preferred by many working in the humanities—including literature, history, and the arts. In this system, sources are cited in numbered footnotes or endnotes. Each note corresponds to a raised (superscript) number in the text. Sources are also usually listed in a separate bibliography. The notes and bibliography system can accommodate a wide variety of sources, including unusual ones that don’t fit neatly into the author-date system.

The author-date system is more common in the sciences and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and year of publication. Each in-text citation matches up with an entry in a reference list, where full bibliographic information is provided.”

~from The Chicago Manual of Style website: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/home.html

How to Cite

The Chicago Manual of Style

Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL): Chicago Style: This link provides examples and resources that are very helpful!

The SBL Handbook of Style: Society of Biblical Literature citations. SBL citation style uses only footnotes, not in-text citations like MLA or APA styles.

Student Supplement for SBL Citations
This Student Guide provides valuable assistance in creating Biblical citations.

Chicago Style Tips
This Tip Sheet provides a handy reference for creating quick citations!

Sample Chicago Papers

Chicago Style: Notes & Bibliography
Here is a sample paper in the Notes and Bibliography style from OWL.

Chicago Style: Author – Date Style
Here is a sample paper in the Author-Date Chicago style from OWL.


MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used in the Humanities and liberal arts fields to cite sources and compose papers.

Formatting an MLA paper
Guide from the Official MLA Style Center

Student Supplement for SBL Citations
This Student Guide provides valuable assistance in creating Biblical citations.

SBL Handbook of Style Blog